Environmental Law and Policy in Namibia: Towards Making Africa the Tree of Life (Third Edition)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD

PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

THE EDITORS

THE CONTRIBUTORS

ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER 1 – NAMIBIA AND ITS LEGAL SETUP

by Oliver C. Ruppel and Katharina Ruppel-Schlichting

  1. Namibia in a Nutshell: Facts and Figures
  2. The Legal Setup in Namibia
  3. The Laws
  4. The Court System

    4.1 The Supreme Court

    4.2 The High Court

    4.3 The Lower Courts

    4.4 The Magistrates’ Courts

    4.5 The Community Courts

  5. The Ombudsman

CHAPTER 2 – INTRODUCING ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

by Katharina Ruppel-Schlichting

  1. Terminology
  2. Foundations of Environmental Protection
  3. Functions of Environmental Law
  4. Historical Development of Environmental Law

CHAPTER 3 – NAMIBIA AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

by Katharina Ruppel-Schlichting

  1. Introduction
  2. Major Environmental Concerns in Namibia

    2.1 Land Degradation and Soil Erosion

    2.2 Deforestation

    2.3 Water Management

    2.4 Climate Change

    2.5 Waste and Pollution

CHAPTER 4 – ENVIRONMENTAL LAW IN NAMIBIA: AN OVERVIEW

by Oliver C. Ruppel

  1. Introduction
  2. The Namibian Constitution
  3. Development Framework

    3.1 Namibia’s Green Plan

    3.2 Vision 2030 and the National Development Plans

  4. Policy Framework

    4.1 Policies on Environment, Wildlife and Biotechnology

    4.2 Policies on Land and Agriculture

    4.3 Policies on Water

    4.4 Policy on Forests

    4.5 Policies on Tourism

    4.6 Climate Change Policy

  5. Statutory Law

    5.1 The Environmental Management Act No. 7 of 2007

    5.2 The Nature Conservation Ordinance No. 4 of 1975

    5.3 Legislation on Water

    5.4 Legislation on Fisheries and Marine Resources

    5.5 Legislation on Land and Agricultural Production

    5.6 Legislation on Forestry

    5.7 Legislation on Energy and Mining

    5.8 Selected Environmental Legislation in Preparation

  6. Roman-Dutch and Common Law
  7. Customary Law
  8. Criminal Aspects of Environmental Law
  9. Selected Strategies and Action Plans

    9.1 National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

    9.2 Namibia’s Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan

    9.3 Aquaculture Strategic Plan

    9.4 Strategic Action Plan for the Implementation of Renewable Energy Policies

    9.5 Forestry Strategic Plan

  10. Funding Mechanisms

CHAPTER 5 – INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

by Oliver C. Ruppel

  1. The Application of International Law in Namibia
  2. Sources of International Environmental Law

    2.1 International Conventions: Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs)

    2.1.1 How MEAs are Made

    2.1.2 The General Scope of MEAs

    2.1.3 Typical Structure of MEAs

    2.1.4 Compliance and Enforcement of MEAs

    2.2 International Customary Law

    2.3 General Concepts and Principles of International Environmental Law

    2.4 Judicial Decisions and Teachings

  3. Multilateral Environmental Agreements Relevant to Namibia

CHAPTER 6 – ENVIRONMENTAL LAW IN THE AFRICAN UNION (AU)

by Oliver C. Ruppel

  1. Introduction
  2. Structure of the AU
  3. Environmental Issues within the AU’s General Legal Framework
  4. Specific Environmental Conventions

    4.1 The African Convention on Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1968

    4.2 The Revised (Algiers) Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 2003

    4.3 The Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa

    4.4 The Maritime Transport Charters

    4.5 The African Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Pelindaba)

    4.6 The Phyto-Sanitary Convention for Africa

    4.7 The African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa

  5. The African Union’s Judicial System and the Consideration of Environmental Rights
  6. Selected Institutions and Initiatives Particularly Relevant for Environmental Protection>

    6.1 The African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN)

    6.2 Relevant Departments within the AU Commission

    6.3 The Peace and Security Council (PSC)

    6.4 The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)

CHAPTER 7 – ENVIRONMENTAL LAW IN THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY (SADC) AND CROSS-CUTTING REGIMES

by Oliver C. Ruppel

  1. The Consideration of Environmental Concerns within the SADC Legal Framework

    1.1 Heterogeneity of SADC States

    1.2 Institutional Structure of SADC

    1.3 Environmentally Relevant Legal Framework

    1.3.1 The SADC Treaty

    1.3.2 The SADC Protocols

    1.3.3 Other SADC Legal and Institutional Instruments Relevant for the Environment

    1.4 SADC Law Enforcement and Relevant Case Law

    1.4.1 The SADC Tribunal

    1.4.2 Mike Campbell: An Environmentalist

    1.4.3 Swissbourgh and the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP)

    1.5 Some Challenges Ahead

  2. The Consideration of Environmental Concerns in Cross-cutting Regimes

    2.1 The Southern African Customs Union (SACU) and SACU Related Trade Agreements

    2.2 The EAC-COMESA-SADC Tripartite Initiative

    2.3 The BRICS Partnership

CHAPTER 8 – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN NAMIBIA

by Katharina Ruppel-Schlichting

  1. Introduction
  2. The Environmental Management Act No. 7 of 2007

    2.1 Environmental Management Principles in the EMA

    2.2 Ministerial Competencies

    2.3 Institutions / Officials under the EMA

    2.4 Environmental Plans under the EMA

    2.5 Environmental Clearance Certificates and Environmental Assessments under the EMA

    2.6 Enforcement and Appeals under the EMA

  3. Concluding Remarks

II. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN NAMIBIA: THE CASE STUDY OF OHORONGO

by Peter Koep and Meyer van den Berg

  1. Background
  2. Ohorongo’s Mining Activities
  3. The Environmental Impact Assessment

    3.1 Water

    3.2 Vegetation

    3.3 Animals

    3.4 Dust

    3.5 Noise

    3.6 Air Pollution

  4. Rehabilitation

CHAPTER 9 – POLLUTION CONTROL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT

by Katharina Ruppel-Schlichting

  1. Introduction
  2. Legal and Policy Framework

    2.1 International Law

    2.2 Pollution under the Constitution

    2.3 Common Law Aspects of Pollution

    2.4 Framework Legislation: The Environmental Management Act No. 7 of 2007 (EMA)

    2.5 Sectoral Legislation

    2.5.1 The Pollution Control and Waste Management Bill

    2.5.2 The Public and Environmental Health Bill

    2.5.3 The Soil Conservation Act No. 76 of 1969

    2.5.4 The Hazardous Substances Ordinance 14 of 1974

    2.5.5 The Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Ordinance 11 of 1976

    2.5.6 The Atomic Energy and Radiation Protection Act No. 5 of 2005

    2.5.7 The Minerals Prospecting and Mining Act No. 33 of 1992

    2.5.8 Water Related Legislation

  3. Waste Management in the City of Windhoek
  4. Concluding Remarks

CHAPTER 10 – LEGAL PROTECTION OF BIODIVERSITY IN NAMIBIA

by Manfred O. Hinz and Oliver C. Ruppel

  1. Introduction
  2. Biodiversity in Perspective
  3. International Environmental Law Pertinent to Biodiversity Protection
  4. Biodiversity Protection under National Environmental Law

CHAPTER 11 – WATER AND FISHERIES

I. WATER AND FISHERIES RELATED STATUTORY LAW AND POLICY IN NAMIBIA

by Shirley Bethune and Oliver C. Ruppel

  1. The Policy Framework

    1.1 The Water Supply and Sanitation Policy

    1.2 The National Water Policy White Paper

    1.3 Namibia’s Draft Wetland Policy

    1.4 Namibia’s Marine Resources Policy

    1.5 Namibia’s Aquaculture Policy

  2. The Statutory Framework

    2.1 The Water Act No. 54 of 1956

    2.2 The Water Resources Management Act No. 24 of 2004

    2.3 The Water Resources Management Act No. 11 of 2013

    2.4 The Namibia Water Corporation Act No. 12 of 1997

    2.5 The Marine Resources Act No. 27 of 2000

    2.6 The Aquaculture Act No. 18 of 2002

    2.7 The Inland Fisheries Resources Act No. 1 of 2003

    2.8 The Prevention and Combating of Pollution at Sea by Oil Act No. 6 of 1981

II. GOVERNANCE OF RURAL WATER SUPPLY IN NAMIBIA

by Thomas Falk

CHAPTER 12 – LAND AND AGRICULTURE

I. LAND AND AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND POLICIES RELEVANT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN NAMIBIA

by Oliver C. Ruppel, Shirley Bethune and Anielle von Finckenstein

  1. Introduction
  2. Soil Protection in the International Legal Framework
  3. Land Tenure in Namibia
  4. Sustainable Farming in Namibia
  5. Land and Agricultural Policies

    5.1 Land-use Planning: Towards Sustainable Development

    5.2 The National Land Policy

    5.3 The National Resettlement Policy

    5.4 The National Land Tenure Policy

    5.5 The National Agricultural Policy

    5.6 The Green Scheme Policy

    5.7 The National Drought Policy and Strategy

    5.8 The Regional Planning and Development Policy

  6. Land and Agriculture Related Legislation

    6.1 The Environmental Management Act No. 7 of 2007

    6.2 The Communal Land Reform Act No. 5 of 2002

    6.3 The Soil Conservation Act No. 76 of 19697

    6.4 The Agricultural (Commercial) Land Reform Act No. 6 of 1995

    6.5 In the Pipeline: The Land Act

    6.6 The Agricultural Pests Act No. 3 of 1973

II. LAND USE PLANNING AND THE ENVIRONMENT

by Felicity F. !Owoses-/Goagoses

  1. Introduction
  2. The Concept of Land Use Planning
  3. Environmental Aspects of Land Use Planning
  4. Planning Levels
  5. Land Use Plans
  6. The Land Use Planning Process
  7. Approaches to Land Use Planning
  8. Current Land Use Policy and Legislative Framework

    8.1 Land Use Planning Approach

    8.2 Legislative and Policy Framework on Land Use Planning

    8.2.1 The Town Planning Ordinance

    8.2.2 The Townships and Division of Land Ordinance

    8.2.3 The Subdivision of Agricultural Land Act

    8.2.4 The Flexible Land Tenure Act

    8.2.5 The Agricultural (Commercial) Land Reform Act

    8.2.6 The Environmental Management Act

  9. Land Use Planning Institutions and Administration

    9.1 The National Planning Commission

    9.2 The Ministry of Land Reform

    9.3 Ministry of Urban and Rural Development

    9.4 Other Authorities, Organisations and Persons

  10. Land Use Planning in Local Government

    10.1 Town Planning Schemes

    10.2 Structure Plans

    10.3 Township Establishment

  11. Regional Planning

    11.1 Regional Development Plans

    11.2 Town Planning Function of Regional Councils

    11.3 Regional Structure Plans

  12. Land Use Planning in the Coastal Zone

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Policy, Legal and Institutional Frameworks

    12.3 Status of Coastal Zone Management

    12.4 The National Policy on Coastal Management

    12.4.1 Defining the Coastal Zone

    12.4.2 NPCM Land Use Planning Objectives and Implementation Strategies

CHAPTER 13 – MINING AND ENERGY

I. MINING AND ENERGY IN NAMIBIA

by Meyer van den Berg and Peter Koep

  1. The Environmental Management Act
  2. Mining Laws and Policy

    2.1 The Minerals (Prospecting and Mining) Act

    2.1.1 Application for Claims and Licences

    2.1.2 Granting of Mining Claims and Mining Licences

    2.1.3 Exercising Rights in Terms of Claims and Licences

    2.1.4 Mine Closure and Rehabilitation

    2.2 The Minerals Policy

    2.3 The SADC Protocol on Mining

  3. Energy Laws and Policy

    3.1 The Petroleum (Exploitation and Production) Act No. 2 of 1991

    3.1.1 Application for Licences

    3.1.2 Granting of Licences

    3.1.3 Exercising Rights in Terms of Licences

    3.1.4 Rehabilitation and Closure

    3.1.5 The Petroleum Agreement

    3.2 The Atomic Energy and Radiation Protection Act No. 5 of 2005

    3.3 The Petroleum Product and Energy Act

    3.4 The Draft Gas Bill

    3.5 The Electricity Act No. 4 of 2007

    3.6 Draft White Paper on the Energy Policy of Namibia

    3.7 Namibia’s Uranium and Nuclear Energy Policy

    3.8 The SADC Protocol on Energy

    3.9 Renewable Energy

II. NAMIBIA TOWARDS A CONDUCIVE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK IN RENEWABLE ENERGY LAW AND REGULATION

by Natalie A. Renkhoff

  1. The Energy Sector

    1.1 Current and Future Projected Demand

    1.2 Current and Prospective Power Generation Projects

    1.2.1 Short-term Projects

    1.2.2 Medium- and Long-term Projects

  2. Regulatory Framework

    2.1 Ministry of Mines and Energy

    2.2 Electricity Control Board

    2.3 Other Market Actors

    2.4 Namibia Energy Institute

  3. Legal Framework

    3.1 White Paper on Energy Policy of Namibia

    3.2 Rural Electrification Programme

    3.3 REDMP – Rural Electricity Distribution Master Plan

    3.4 OGEMP – Off-Grid Energisation Master Plan

    3.5 NEEP – Namibia Energy Efficiency Programme in Buildings

    3.6 REEECAP – Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Capacity Building Programme

    3.7 NIRP - National Integrated Resource Plan

    3.8 CSP TT NAM and Other RE Projects

  4. Benefits of and Barriers to Renewable Energy
  5. Procurement Mechanisms

    5.1 Feed-in Tariffs

    5.2 Tendering

    5.3 Power Purchase Agreements

    5.4 Quota Systems and Green Certificates

    5.5 Net Metering

  6. RE Projects in Namibia

    6.1 Tsumkwe and Gam Energy Projects

    6.2 Biomass Power Plants from Encroacher Bush

  7. Concluding Remarks

III. INTERNATIONAL LAW ASPECTS OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES

by Oliver C. Ruppel and Katharina Ruppel-Schlichting

  1. Introduction
  2. Sustainable Energy and Climate Change
  3. Regulatory Framework on the International Level
  4. Regulatory Framework in the Southern African Development Community (SADC)

    4.2 The Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP)

    4.3 The Regional Energy Access Strategy and Action Plan (REASAP)

    4.4 The Energy Sector Plan of the SADC Regional Infrastructure Development Master Plan (RIDMP)

  5. Regulatory Options to Support Renewable Energies on the National Level
  6. Concluding Remarks

CHAPTER 14 – CLIMATE CHANGE

I. SETTING THE SCENE: HUMAN VULNERABILITY AND FINDINGS OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE

by Oliver C. Ruppel

  1. Introduction
  2. Aspects of Human Vulnerability in Africa
  3. Findings of the IPCC

    3.1 Main Findings for Africa

    3.2 Impacts of Climate Change

    3.3 Future Risks

  4. Opportunities for Effective Action to Reduce the Risks Associated to Climate Change
  5. Concluding Remarks

II. INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY: WHERE DO WE STAND?

by Nadia von Bassewitz

  1. Introduction
  2. Key Legal Framework Documents

    2.1 The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992

    2.2 The Kyoto Protocol, 1997

    2.2.1 Mitigation

    2.2.2 Adaptation

  3. Developments up until Copenhagen 2009

    3.1 Taking Stock of the Kyoto Protocol

    3.2 COP12, Montreal, Canada, 2005

    3.3 COP13, Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia, 2007

    3.3.1 Outcome

    3.3.2 Assessment

    3.4 COP15, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2009

    3.4.1 Outcome

    3.4.2 Assessment

  4. Developments Beyond Copenhagen 2009 until Lima 2014

    4.1 Taking Stock of the Copenhagen Accord

    4.2 COP16, Cancun, Mexico, 2010

    4.2.1 Outcome

    4.2.2 Assessment

    4.3 COP17, Durban, South Africa, 2011

    4.3.1 Outcome

    4.3.2 Assessment

    4.4 COP18, Doha, Qatar, 2012

    4.4.1 Outcome

    4.4.2 Assessment

    4.5 COP19, Warsaw, Poland, 2013

    4.5.1 Outcome

    4.5.2 Assessment

    4.6 COP20, Lima, Peru, 2014

    4.6.1 Outcome

    4.6.2 Assessment

  5. Ahead of COP 21, Paris, France, 2015
  6. Global Warming and Individual Countries

    6.1 The European Union

    6.1.1 Mitigation Policy

    6.1.2 Funding for Developing Countries

    6.2 The United States of America

    6.2.1 Mitigation Policy

    6.2.2 Funding for Developing Countries

    6.3 BASIC Group: China

    6.3.1 Mitigation Targets?

    6.3.2 Policy Instruments

  7. Concluding Remarks

III. AFRICA IN THE INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE NEGOTIATIONS

by Nicole Bogott and Lesley-Anne van Wyk

  1. Introduction
  2. Background
  3. Parallels and Asymmetries: Africa in the Global Climate Change Arena
  4. Consolidating the ‘African Voice’
  5. Conclusion

IV. REVIEW OF THE CLIMATE CHANGE SITUATION IN NAMIBIA: PROJECTED TRENDS, VULNERABILITY AND EFFECTS

by Isaac Mapaure

  1. Introduction
  2. Namibia’s Contribution to Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  3. Climate Trends and Predictions
  4. Potential Impacts of Climate Change

    4.1 Projections

    4.2 Agriculture

    4.3 Biodiversity, Ecosystems and Tourism

    4.4 Coastal Zone

    4.5 Energy

    4.6 Human Health and Well-Being

    4.7 Fisheries and Marine Resources

    4.8 Water Resources

  5. Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change in Namibia: Actions Taken
  6. Concluding Remarks

V. LEGAL AND REGULATORY ASPECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN NAMIBIA AND SADC

by Oliver C. Ruppel

  1. Introduction
  2. Climate Change Legislation
  3. Namibia’s Climate Change Policy
  4. Namibia and the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
  5. Climate Change Governance in the Southern African Development Community (SADC)

CHAPTER 15 – DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT LAW AND POLICY

by Mary Picard and Ewan Powrie

  1. Introduction
  2. International Frameworks

    2.1 International Response to Disasters

    2.2 Disaster Risk Reduction

    2.2.1 Hyogo Framework for Action

    2.2.2 Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030

    2.3 State DRM Obligations under Human Rights Law

  3. Disaster Risk Management Law and Policy in the African Union

    3.1 Africa Regional Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction

    3.2 Human Rights and Internal Displacement

  4. Disaster Risk Management Law and Policy in the SADC Region
  5. Disaster Risk Management Law and Policy in Namibia

    5.1 Disaster Risk Management Act No. 10 of 2012

    5.2 Disaster Risk Management Regulations 2013

    5.3 Relevant Policy Framework for DRM in Namibia

    5.3.1 National Disaster Risk Management Policy 2009

    5.3.2 National Disaster Risk Management Plan 2011

    5.3.3 National Development Plan and Vision 2030

    5.4 Disaster Risk Reduction in Key Sectoral Laws in Namibia

    5.4.1 Building Codes

    5.4.2 Environmental Resource Management

    5.4.3 Forestry

    5.4.4 Water

CHAPTER 16 – TRADE, ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

by Oliver C. Ruppel

  1. Introducing the International Trade, Environment and Development Debate

    1.1 The Trade Perspective

    1.2 The Environmental Perspective

    1.3 The Development Perspective

    1.4 Sustainable Development: The Answer to the Dilemma?

  2. The Role of Trade for Sustainable Development and the Reduction of Poverty in Africa
  3. Regional Integration and Natural Resources in Southern Africa
  4. The WTO and the Environment

    4.1 The Primary Objectives of the WTO

    4.2 The 2001 Doha Declaration and the Environment

    4.3 The Committee on Trade and Environment

    4.4 WTO Agreements and their Environmentally Relevant Provisions

    4.4.1 The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)

    4.4.2 The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)

    4.4.3 The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)

    4.4.4 The Agreement on Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary Measures (SPS)

    4.4.5 The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)

    4.4.6 The Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM)

    4.4.7 The Agreement on Agriculture

    4.4.8 The Environmental Goods Agreement

    4.5 The WTO’s Dispute Settlement Body

    4.6 Some Environmental Case References

    4.6.1 United States – Canadian Tuna (1982)

    4.6.2 Canada – Salmon and Herring (1988)

    4.6.3 United States – Tuna (Mexico) (1991, not adopted)

    4.6.4 United States – Gasoline (1996)

    4.6.5 Chile – Swordfish (WTO/ITLOS, 2000)

    4.6.6 United States – Shrimp: Initial Phase (1998)

    4.6.7 United States – Shrimp: Implementation Phase (2001)

    4.6.8 Brazil – Measures Affecting Imports of Re-treaded Tyres (2007)

    4.6.9 China – Measures Related to the Exportation of Various Raw Materials

    4.6.10 China – Measures Related to the Exportation of Rare Earths, Tungsten and Molybdenum

    4.7 The WTO and the North-South Divide

    4.8 Climate Change and WTO Law

  5. Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) and the Multilateral Trading System
  6. The Trade and Investment Environment in Namibia

    6.1 Trade Policy Review Namibia 2015

    6.1.1 Trade Performance Overview

    6.1.2 Trade-related Legislation (also relevant to the Environment)

    6.1.3 Environmentally Relevant Import Practices

    6.1.4 Environmentally Relevant Export Practices

    6.1.5 Agriculture

    6.1.6 Fisheries

    6.1.7 Forestry

    6.1.8 Mining and Energy

    6.1.9 Manufacturing

    6.1.10 Services

    6.1.11 Transport

    6.1.12 Tourism

    6.2 Foreign Investment

  7. Concluding Remarks

CHAPTER 17 – CUSTOMARY LAW AND THE ENVIRONMENT

by Manfred O. Hinz

  1. Introduction
  2. Post-Independence Conservation Policy in Namibia: Gateway for Customary Environmental Law
  3. Customary Law and Customary Environmental Law within the General Legal System
  4. Conservancies and Customary Law
  5. BIOTA and TFO Research on Customary Law and the Environment
  6. Traditional Conservationism
  7. The Protection of Traditional Knowledge
  8. Concluding Remarks

CHAPTER 18 – WESTERN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS REGIMES AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE PROTECTION SYSTEMS IN AFRICA

by Eliamani Laltaika

  1. Introduction
  2. Defining Traditional Knowledge and Associated Genetic Resources
  3. Biopiracy
  4. Western Intellectual Property Regime versus Community Rights
  5. The Convention on Biological Diversity: A New Era for GR Governance?
  6. Intellectual Property in Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and TK

    6.1 The International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources

    6.2 The TRIPS Agreement and UPOV

    6.3 Historical Backdrop

    6.4 The Pinch of IPR to Farmers

  7. African Approach

    7.1 The OAU Model Legislation on the Protection of the Rights of Local Communities, Farmers and Breeders, and for the Regulation of Access to Biological Resources

    7.2 The Swakopmund Protocol on the Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Expressions of Folklore

  8. The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefit Arising from their Utilisation: Too Little, Too Late?

    8.1 Overview of the Protocol

    8.2 Does the Protocol Make a Difference?

    8.3 Too Little, Too Late?

  9. The Need for a Paradigm Shift
  10. Concluding Remarks

CHAPTER 19 – HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

by Oliver C. Ruppel

  1. Introduction
  2. Human Rights Categories
  3. Constitutionality of Environmental Human Rights?

    3.1 The Preamble

    3.2 Fundamental Rights and Freedoms

    3.3 Article 6: The Right to Life

    3.4 Article 8: Respect for Human Dignity

    3.5 Article 10: Equality and Freedom from Discrimination

    3.6 Article 15: Children’s Rights

    3.7 Articles 18 and 5: Administrative Justice

    3.8 Article 19: The Right to Culture

    3.9 Article 25: Enforcement of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms

    3.10 Article 95(1): The Environmental Principle of State Policy

    3.11 Article 100: Sovereign Ownership of Natural Resources

    3.12 Article 144: International Law

  4. Concluding Remarks

CHAPTER 20 – ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE, COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT

by Oliver C. Ruppel

  1. Introduction
  2. Environmental Justice and Advocacy
  3. Administrative Procedures for Compliance and Enforcement
  4. The Role of Namibian Courts in Environmental Matters
  5. Criminal Law
  6. Conflict Resolution

    6.1 Environmental Litigation

    6.2 Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) in the Area of Environmental Conflict

    6.2.1 General Features of ADR

    6.2.2 ADR in Namibian Statutory Law

  7. Concluding Remarks

CHAPTER 21 – THE OMBUDSMAN AND THE ENVIRONMENT

by Katharina Ruppel-Schlichting

  1. Legal Foundations
  2. Basic Characteristics of the Ombudsman in Namibia
  3. The Environmental Mandate of the Ombudsman
  4. Investigation, Enforcement and Reporting Procedures

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER REFERENCES